For the week 2 assignment, students wrote a vision statement after researching appropriate ways to integrate technology into the classroom.
By using technology inside and outside the classroom, both students and teachers can benefit as students can learn or relearn material, while having quicker access to information, using additional audio and visual aids, at any time during the day or the evening.
Additional Audio and Visual Aids
To be successful, teachers must meet the needs of students with multiple intelligences. Although “all humans exhibit the range of intelligences, individuals differ presumably for both hereditary and environmental reasons in their current profile of intelligences. Moreover, there is no necessary correlation between any two intelligences, and they may indeed entail quite distinct forms of perception, memory, and other psychological processes” (Gardner, 1989). The Seven Intelligences are mathematical-logical, linguistic, musical, spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal (Gardner, 1989). In order to meet the demands of so many intelligences, instructors need the correct technological tools to assist in the teaching and learning process. Teachers and students need appropriate technologies to go beyond reading and talking about new topics in the classroom.
However, according to Roblyer we must avoid The Glitz Factor (Roblyer, 1990). Using technology to simply use technology is not appropriate. Teachers should be “making a conscious effort to match technology resources to problems that educators cannot address in other, easier ways” (Roblyer, 2013). For example in mathematics, showing student solutions using paper and pencil still makes more sense than typing answers. The amount of time it takes to type mathematical symbols using current computer and software technology is a very slow process. Writing solutions using pencil technology is still more efficient for math courses.
In 1938, Dewey said it eloquently when he wrote, “the educator (has) the duty of instituting a much more intelligent, and consequently more difficult, kind of planning. He must survey capacities and needs of the particular set of individuals with whom he is dealing and must at the same time arrange the conditions which provide the subject-matter or content for experiences that satisfy these needs and develop the capacities” (Dewey, 1938). All the considerations a teacher must take into account when planning his or her lesson, still applies today, but now includes higher forms of technology.
Inside and Outside Classroom Technology Access
At one time, there were those that thought computer technology would one day completely replace the human teacher. This idea from the 1960’s has yet to see the light. Instead, “in an increasingly technological society, we need more teachers who are both technology savvy and child centered” (Roblyer, 2013). Many decisions will still rely upon a teacher’s expertise. “The right method depends on the situation” (Hirsch, 2002). Should a math teacher have students working on the calculator, the computer or simply keep the work on paper with pencil? “Just as different learning needs call for different teaching methods, effective technology integration depends on a well-planned match of needs with tools and strategies, as well as classroom conditions that support them” (Roblyer, 2013). During class, the teacher should demonstrate useful technology resources so students understand how they can access information both inside and outside the classroom.
Learning and Relearning Material Options
Instructors can incorporate both objectivism and constructivism ideas using technology in the classroom. Objectivism can use technology to reinforce mastery learning. Likewise, constructivist theories can use technology to reinforce social activism, learning with modeling, scaffolding, discovery learning and the multiple intelligences (Roblyer, 2013). Again, “the right method depends on the situation” (Hirsch, 2002). For example, instructors can give students internet access points to relearn information outside of class. Therefore, students do not need to wait until the instructor is available for extra help.
Today, there is a multitude of excellent math video lessons on-line. Although students cannot ask questions during such a video, they can however pause and replay videos to make sure he/she understands every math or calculator step. Students can access this information when they are absent and miss class. Alternatively, a student struggling to understand material he/she heard in class one day could go on the internet to hear the information again via a YouTube or Khan Academy video.
Quicker Instructional Material Access at Anytime of the Day
Computers, mobile devices and internet access now allow students to look up concepts more quickly than searching through a textbook. However, many students will benefit from a lesson about how to use technological tools to expand their learning experience, not just use technology for socializing.
Additionally, instructors should teach students how to use technology as detailed by The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. For students to be creative, innovative, critical thinkers and problem solvers (Partnership, 2011), then students also need to know when and how to access appropriate technology. Likewise, when demonstrating multiple technology resources, instructors are teaching all students life and career skills of flexibility, productivity and leadership (Partnership, 2011). Again, the instructor plays an important role in leading students using applicable technological tools.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. (p. 17) New York, NY: Macmillan.
Gardner, H. & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school. Educational Researcher (18) 8. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/~jcnesbit/EDUC220/ThinkPaper/Gardner1989.pdf
Hirsch, E. D. (2002). Classroom research and cargo cults. Policy Review (115), Hoover Institution, Stanford University. Retrieved from http://grants.leeschools.net/docs/Research%20Articles/Hirsch%20%282002%29%20Classroom%20Research%20And%20Cargo%20Cults.pdf
Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2011). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/1.__p21_framework_2-pager.pdf
Roblyer, M. D. (1990). The glitz factor. Educational Technology, 30 (10), 34-36. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=95680&picked=prox&CFID=557299629&CFTOKEN=73526027
Roblyer, M. D. & Doerling, A. H. (2013). Integrating educational technology into teaching (6th ed.) (p.10-51). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010, July 20). Technology solutions with potential for high relative advantage. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/technology-solutions-potential-high/